DFSDM Linux driver
- 1 Article purpose
- 2 Short Description
- 3 Configuration
- 4 How to use
- 5 How to trace and debug
- 6 Source code location
- 7 References
1 Article purpose
The purpose of this article is to introduce the Linux® driver for the DFSDM internal peripheral:
- Which DFSDM features are supported by the driver
- How to configure, use and debug it
- What is the driver structure, where to the find source code.
2 Short Description
- IIO direct mode: single capture on a channel
- IIO software buffer: capture one or more channels
- IIO triggered buffer mode: capture on one or more channels using triggers
It uses hardware triggers available in IIO. See TIM Linux driver and LPTIM Linux driver.
It offers an extended API for audio usage which allows PDM microphones capture through a SPI interface.
3.1 Kernel configuration
Activate the DFSDM Linux® driver in the kernel configuration by using the menuconfig tool.
3.1.1 IIO driver
Configuration flag: CONFIG_STM32_DFSDM_ADC
Device Drivers ---> <*> Industrial I/O support ---> Analog to digital converters ---> <*> STMicroelectronics STM32 dfsdm adc <*> STMicroelectronics STM32 adc # DFSDM ADC IIO driver
When using the DFSDM ADC IIO driver (only), the user must also enable the driver for the external analog front-end (e.g. sigma delta modulator). The generic sigma delta modulators driver may be used for instance (CONFIG_SD_ADC_MODULATOR):
Device Drivers ---> <*> Industrial I/O support ---> Analog to digital converters ---> <*> Generic sigma delta modulator # sigma delta modulator driver
3.1.2 Audio driver
Configuration flag: CONFIG_SND_SOC_STM32_DFSDM (Note: This configuration depends on CONFIG_STM32_DFSDM_ADC)
Device Drivers ---> <*> Sound card support ---> <*> Advanced Linux Sound Architecture ---> <*> ALSA for SoC audio support ---> STMicroelectronics STM32 SOC audio support ---> <*> SoC Audio support for STM32 DFSDM # DFSDM Audio driver for digital microphone capture
3.2 Device tree
Refer to the DFSDM device tree configuration article when configuring the DFSDM Linux kernel driver.
4 How to use
4.1 IIO driver
In "IIO direct mode", the conversion result can be read directly from sysfs, see: How to do a simple ADC conversion using the sysfs interface.
In "IIO triggered buffer mode", the configuration must be performed by using sysfs first. Then, character device (/dev/iio:deviceX) is used to read data, see Convert one or more channels using triggered buffer mode.
For information on the standard IIO consumer interface, please refer to How to use IIO kernel API which gives an example of the IIO consumer kernel API.
4.2 Audio driver
The DFSDM Linux driver can be accessed from userland through an ALSA device. Refer to ALSA overview for information on how to list and use ALSA devices.
5 How to trace and debug
5.1 How to monitor
The DFSDM driver uses resources such as clocks and GPIOs.
- Refer to Pinctrl_overview#How_to_monitor to check DFSDM GPIOs.
- Refer to Clock_overview#How_to_monitor_with_debugfs to check DFSDM clocks.
5.1.1 How to monitor with debugfs
The DFSDM registers are accessed using REGMAP by DFSDM Linux® driver.
It comes with debugfs entries to dump registers:
$ cd /sys/kernel/debug/regmap/4400d000.dfsdm/ $ cat registers 000: 00000000 004: 00000000 008: 00000000
5.1.2 Other ways to monitor
- Man can check the DFSDM interrupts and/or the DFSDM DMA interrupts:
$ cat /proc/interrupts CPU0 CPU1 ... 99: 0 0 GIC-0 142 Level 4400d000.dfsdm:filter@0 100: 0 0 GIC-0 143 Level 4400d000.dfsdm:filter@1 101: 0 0 GIC-0 144 Level 4400d000.dfsdm:filter@2 ...
5.2 How to trace
5.2.1 IIO driver
Refer to How to trace with dynamic debug for how to enable the debug logs in the driver and in the framework.
Board $> dmesg -n8 Board $> echo "file drivers/iio/adc/stm32-dfsdm* +p" > /sys/kernel/debug/dynamic_debug/control
To enable dynamic debug at boot time, append the following arguments on the kernel command line:
loglevel=8 dyndbg="file drivers/iio/adc/stm32-dfsdm* +p"
5.2.2 Audio driver
Refer to ALSA_overview#How_to_trace for details on trace tools.
5.3 How to debug
5.3.1 Audio driver
Refer to ALSA_overview#How_to_debug for details on debugging tools.
6 Source code location
It is composed of:
- stm32-dfsdm-core.c , core part of DFSDM Linux driver to handle common resources: registers, clock
- stm32-dfsdm-adc.c , ADC part of DFSDM Linux driver to handle ADC operations
- stm32_adfsdm.c , ASoC DAI part of DFSDM Linux driver to handle audio operations
See also sigma delta modulator driver:
- sd_adc_modulator.c , sigma delta modulator Linux driver to handle analog front-end
- include/linux/iio/adc/stm32-dfsdm-adc.h , DFSDM IIO custom API
Digital Filter for Sigma-Delta Modulator
Industrial I/O Linux subsystem
Application programming interface
Serial Peripheral Interface
Analog-to-digital converter. The process of converting a sampled analog signal to a digital code that represents the amplitude of the original signal sample.
Advanced Linux sound architecture
Register map (Linux registers map abstraction API)
Direct Memory Access
Generic Interrupt Controller
ALSA System on Chip
Digital Audio Interface