Pinctrl device tree configuration




1 Purpose[edit]

The purpose of this article is to explain how to configure the GPIO internal peripheral through the pin controller (pinctrl) framework, when this peripheral is assigned to Linux® OS (Cortex-A). The configuration is performed using the Device tree.

To better understand I/O management, it is recommended to read the Overview of GPIO pins article.

This article also provides an example explaining how to add a new pin in the device tree.

2 DT bindings documentation[edit]

The Pinctrl device tree bindings are composed of:

  • generic DT bindings[1] used by the pinctrl framework.
  • vendor pinctrl DT bindings[2] used by the stm32-pinctrl driver: this binding document explains how to write device tree files for pinctrl.

3 DT configuration[edit]

3.1 DT configuration (STM32 level)[edit]

The pin controller node is located in the pinctrl dtsi file stm32mp157-pinctrl.dtsi[3]. See Device tree for more explanations about device tree file split. The pin controller node is composed of three parts:

3.1.1 STM32 pin controller information[edit]

pinctrl: pin-controller {                 Comments
 	#address-cells = <1>;              
 	#size-cells = <1>;                 
 	ranges = <0 0x50002000 0xa400>;    -->Provides IP start address and memory map device size
 	interrupt-parent = <&exti>;        -->Provides interrupt parent controller (used when the GPIO is configured as an external interrupt)
 	st,syscfg = <&exti 0x60 0xff>;     -->Provides phandle for IRQ mux selection
 	pins-are-numbered;
	
        ...
};
Warning.png This device tree part is related to STM32 microprocessors. It must be kept as is, without being modified by the end-user.


3.1.2 GPIO bank information[edit]

pinctrl: pin-controller {                 Comments
 	...

	gpioa: gpio@50002000 {
		gpio-controller;           
		#gpio-cells = <2>;
		interrupt-controller;      -->Indicates that this GPIO bank can be used as interrupt controller
		#interrupt-cells = <2>;
		reg = <0x0 0x400>;         -->Provides offset in pinctrl addres map for the GPIO bank
		clocks = <&rcc GPIOA>;     -->phandle on GPIO bank clock
		st,bank-name = "GPIOA";
		status = "disabled";
	};

	gpiob: gpio@50003000 {
		gpio-controller;
		#gpio-cells = <2>;
		interrupt-controller;
		#interrupt-cells = <2>;
		reg = <0x1000 0x400>;
		clocks = <&rcc GPIOB>;
		st,bank-name = "GPIOB";
		status = "disabled";
	};

        ...
};
Warning.png This device tree part is related to STM32 microprocessors. It must be kept as is, without being modified by the end-user.

3.1.3 Pin state definition[edit]

- Extract of stm32mp157c-pinctrl.dtsi[3] file:
pinctrl: pin-controller {
        ...
         usart3_pins_a: usart3@0 {                                                   Comments
	        pins1 {
		        pinmux = <STM32_PINMUX('B', 10, AF7)>, /* USART3_TX */      -->Pin muxing information: AF7 (alternate function 7) selected on PB10 pin
			         <STM32_PINMUX('G', 8, AF8)>; /* USART3_RTS */      -->Pin muxing information: AF8 (alternate function 8) selected on PG8 pin
		        bias-disable;                                               -->Generic bindings corresponding to "no pull-up" and "no pull-down"
		        drive-push-pull;                                            -->Generic bindings to select pin driving information
		        slew-rate = <0>;                                            -->Generic bindings to select pin speed
	        };
	        pins2 {
		        pinmux = <STM32_PINMUX('B', 12, AF8)>, /* USART3_RX */
			         <STM32_PINMUX('I', 10, AF8)>; /* USART3_CTS_NSS */
		        bias-disable;
	        };
       };
       ...
};
- Refer to GPIO internal peripheral for more details on hardware pin configuration.

3.2 DT configuration (board level)[edit]

As seen in Pin controller configuration (pin state definition part), all pin states are defined inside the pin controller node.

Each device that requires pins has to select the desired pin state phandle inside the board device tree file (see Device tree for more explanations about device tree file split).

The STM32MP1 devices feature a lot of possible pin combinations for a given internal peripheral. From one board to another, different sets of pins can consequently be used for an internal peripheral. Note that "_a", "_b" suffixes are used to identify pin muxing combinations in the device tree pinctrl file. The right suffixed combination must then be used in the device tree board file.

  • Example:
&usart3 {
        ...
	pinctrl-names = "default","sleep";
	pinctrl-0 = <&usart3_pins_a>;
	pinctrl-1 = <&usart3_sleep_pins_a>;
	...
};

3.3 DT configuration examples[edit]

3.3.1 How to add new pin states[edit]

To add new pin states and affect them to a foo_device, proceed as follows:

1. Find the pins you need:
In the example below, the foo_device needs to configure PC13, PG8 and PI2.
AF2 is selected as alternate function on PC13, and AF5 on PG8 and PI2.
Each pin requires an internal pull-up.
2. Write your pin state phandle in stm32mp157c-pinctrl.dtsi.
 pinctrl: pin-controller {
         ...
          foo_pins_a: foo@0 {
 	        pins {
 		        pinmux = <STM32_PINMUX('C', 13, AF2)>,
                                 <STM32_PINMUX('G', 8, AF5)>,
 			         <STM32_PINMUX('I', 2, AF5)>; 
 		        bias-pull-up;
 	        };
        };
        ...
 };
All the possible settings are described in GPIO internal peripheral.
3. Select the pin state phandle required for your device in the board file.
&foo {
        ...
	pinctrl-names = "default";
	pinctrl-0 = <&foo_pins_a>;
	...
};

4 How to configure GPIOs using STM32CubeMX[edit]

The STM32CubeMX tool can be used to configure the STM32MPU device and get the corresponding platform configuration device tree files.
The STM32CubeMX may not support all the properties described in the above DT bindings documentation paragraph. If so, the tool inserts user sections in the generated device tree. These sections can then be edited to add some properties and they are preserved from one generation to another. Refer to STM32CubeMX user manual for further information.

5 References[edit]

Please refer to the following links for additional information:

  1. Documentation/devicetree/bindings/pinctrl/pinctrl-bindings.txt , Generic pinctrl device tree bindings
  2. Documentation/devicetree/bindings/pinctrl/st,stm32-pinctrl.txt , STM32 pinctrl device tree bindings
  3. 3.03.1 stm32mp157-pinctrl.dtsi STM32MP157C Pinctrl device tree file

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